Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Reading The Text - Analisa Teks (1)

Ingin jadi penerjemah? Maka sobat harus membaca tulisan tentang cara menganalisa sebuah teks sebelum diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa sasaran. Jika sudah bisa menganalisa sebuah teks, maka langkah dalam penerjemahan bisa menjadi lebih mudah, betul tidak?
Nah, agar ringkas, berikut adalah tulisan asli Peter Newmark tentang cara pertama dalam menganalisa sebuah teks (The Analysis of a Text) dalam buku lawasnya yang populer "A Textbook of Translation".

Menurut Newmark, dalam menganalisa teks, hal pertama yang harus dilakukan adalah membaca teks yang akan kita terjemah. Untuk lebih jelasnya, mari kita pahami tata cara membaca sebuah teks yang baik dan benar dalam teori penerjemahan menurut Newmark. Yuk lihat tulisan Newmark (11-12) di bawah ini :

Reading The Text

You begin the job by reading the original for two purposes: first, to understand what it is about; second, to analyse it from a 'translator's' point of view, which is not the same as a linguist's or a literary critic's. You have to determine its intention and the way it is written for the purpose of selecting a suitable translation method and identifying particular and recurrent problems.

Understanding the text requires both general and close reading. General reading to get the gist; here you may have to read encyclopaedias, textbooks, or specialist papers to understand the subject and the concepts, always bearing in mind that for the translator the function precedes the description - the important thing about the neutrino in context is not that it is a stable elementary particle, preserving the law of conservation of mass and energy, but that now the neutrino has been found to have mass, the Universe is calculated to be twice as large as previously thought. 'Chair', chaise, Stuhl, Sessel, sedia, silla, stul- they all present somewhat different images, lax bundles of shapes that differ in each culture, united primarily by a similar function, an object for a person to sit on plus a few essential formal features, such as a board with a back and four legs. A knife is for cutting with, but the blade and the handle are important too - they distinguish the knife from the scissors.

Close reading is required, in any challenging text, of the words both out of and in context. In principle, everything has to be looked up that does not make good sense in its context; common words like serpent (F), to ensure they are not being used musically or figuratively (sly, deceitful, unscupulous) or technically (EEC currency) or colloquially; neologisms - you will likely find many if you are translating a recent publication acronyms, to find their TL equivalents, which may be non-existent (you should not invent them, even if you note that the SL author has invented them); figures and measures, converting to TL or Systeme International (SI) units where appropriate; names of people and places, almost all words beginning with capital letters - 'encyclopaedia' words are as important as 'dictionary' words, the distinction being fuzzy. (Words like 'always', 'never', 'all', 'must' have no place in talk about translation - there are 'always' exceptions.) You can compare the translating activity to an iceberg: the tip is the translation - what is visible, what is written on the page - the iceberg, the activity, is all the work you do, often ten times as much again, much of which you do not even use.

Silahkan Mahasiswa Jurusan Translation terjemahkan kalimat di atas... :-)

Referensi :

Newmark, Peter, (1988a) A textbook of Translation. New York : Prentice Hall Inc.

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