Saturday, December 24, 2011

Definisi Bahasa - The Definition of Language

Definisi bahasa memang kadang sering diburu oleh teman-teman mahasiswa yang sedang mencari referensi mengenai definisi bahasa baik itu dari buku yang berbahasa Indonesia maupun yang berbahasa Inggris. Apalagi bagi mereka yang gemar mengawali skripsi mereka dengan mengutip beberapa pendapat mengenai arti bahasa.

Sebenarnya definisi bahasa sudah sangat banyak sekali diungkapkan di dalam kamus bahasa inggris, namun kadang definisi tersebut kurang dari yang diharapkan. Oleh karena itu disini saya akan memberikan beberapa definisi atau pengertian bahasa menurut para ahli linguistics (linguists) khususnya yang berbahasa Inggris ya... Oke kita langsung saja arti bahasa menurut beberapa ahli berikut ini:


A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates.  (Bloch and Trager, dikutip Lyons 1981: 4)

Language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral--auditory arbitrary symbols. (Hall, dikutip Lyons 1981: 4)

Languages are symbol systems... almost wholly based on pure or arbitrary convention.   (Robins, dikutip Lyons, 1981: 6)

A language is a system of conventional vocal signs by means of which human beings communicate. This definition has several important terms, each of which is examined in some detail... Those terms are system, signs, vocal, conventional, human, communicate.  (Algeo, 2005: 2)

Definisi Bahasa Menurut Kamus Merriam-Webster Online

 

1 a : the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a community b (1) : audible, articulate, meaningful sound as produced by the action of the vocal organs (2) : a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings (3) : the suggestion by objects, actions, or conditions of associated ideas or feelings <language in their very gesture — Shakespeare> (4) : the means by which animals communicate (5) : a formal system of signs and symbols (as FORTRAN or a calculus in logic) including rules for the formation and transformation of admissible expressions (6) : machine language
2 a : form or manner of verbal expression; specifically : style b : the vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or a department of knowledge c : profanity
3 : the study of language especially as a school subject
4 : specific words especially in a law or regulation

Contoh Kalimat tentang Bahasa "Language"

 

  1. How many languages do you speak?
  2. French is her first language.
  3. The book has been translated into several languages.
  4. He's learning English as a second language.
  5. a new word that has recently entered the language
  6. the formal language of the report
  7. the beauty of Shakespeare's language
  8. She expressed her ideas using simple and clear language.
  9. He is always careful in his use of language.

Asal Kata Bahasa "Language"

 

Middle English, from Anglo-French langage, from lange, langue tongue, language, from Latin lingua

First Known Use: 14th century


Referensi

Algeo, John. 2005. The Origins and Development of the English Language: Sixth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Lyons, John. 1981. Language and Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.

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