Wednesday, October 26, 2011

5 Cara Menerjemah ala Etienne Dollet

Cara menerjemah ala Etienne Dollet? Belum kenalan? Silahkan kenalan dulu, Cari di Om Google aja siapa Etienne Dollet, Oke. Di sini saya hanya akan membagikan referensi On the Way of Translating Well from One Language into Another yang dipublikasikan lagi oleh Andre Lefevere (1992: 27-28) berikut ini:

First, the translator must understand to perfection the meaning and the subject matter of the author he translates. If he understands this he will never be obscure in his translation and if the author he translates is in no way obscene, he will be able to make him easily and perfectly intelligible.

The second point required in translation is that the translator should know the language of the author he translates to perfection and that he should have achieved the same excellence in the language he wants to translate into. In that way he will neither violate nor denigrate the splendor of one language or the other. You must understand that every language has its own characteristics, and therefore its diction, its patterns of speech, its subtleties, and its power must be translated accordingly. If the translator does not know this, he will hurt the author he translates and also the language he translates him into, for he will neither represent nor express the dignity and the riches of the two languages he has taken in hand.

The third point is that when you translate you should not enter into slavery to the point of rendering word for word. Whoever translates in this way does so because his mind is poor and deficient. If he possesses the qualities mentioned above (and a good translator must possess them) he will work with sentences and not care about the order of the words, and he will see to it that the author’s intention is expressed while miraculously preserving the characteristics of both languages. It is therefore wrong to believe (should I call that belief stupidity or ignorance?) that you should start your translation at the beginning of a sentence. But if you express the intention of the author you translate you will be above reproach, even if you distort the syntax. I shall not pass over in silence the folly of some translators who bow to servitude instead of acting freely. They are such fools that they try to render line by line, or verse by verse. When they make this mistake they often adulterate the meaning of the author they translate and convey neither the elegance nor the perfection of either language. You must guard against this vice with all your might, since all it demonstrates is the translator’s ignorance.

The fourth rule I want to offer here must be observed with greater diligence in languages that have not yet become established in the field of art than in others. I would call the following languages not yet established in the field of art: French, Italian, Spanish, German, English, and other vulgar tongues. If you translate a Latin book into one of these languages (even into French), you should not usurp words which are too close to Latin or have been little used in the past. Be satisfied with common usage and do not foolishly introduce novelties spawned by curiosity which can only be called reprehensible. If you observe some translators doing so, do not imitate them, since their arrogance is not worth a thing and cannot be tolerated among the learned. But do not think I am telling you the translator should completely abstain from using words outside common usage, since it is well known that Greek or Latin are richer in diction than French. This often forces us to use rare words, but we should do so only in cases of dire need.

Let us now come to the fifth rule a good translator needs to observe. It is such an important rule that all compositions are heavy and unpleasant without it. What is it then? Merely that the translator should observe the figures of speech, namely that he should link and arrange words with such sweetness that the soul is satisfied and the ears are pleased. He should never object to harmony in language. And I would once again like to admonish the translator to observe the rules I have given. If he does not, he will not be able to write any remarkable composition whatsoever: his sentences will not sound serious and they will not achieve their legitimate weight, as required.

Mohon maaf belum bisa menyajikan terjemahan bebasnya ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Tapi jika ada yang suka rela ingin menerjemahkan 5 Cara Menerjemahkan ala Etienne Dollet di atas, silahkan berbagi..


Lefevere, Andre. 1992. Translation, History, Culture: A Sourcebook. London and New York: Routledge.

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