Wednesday, January 26, 2011

Jenis-Jenis Terjemahan (Bagian 3)

Sobat-sobit yang budiman, setelah mengetahui jenis-jenis terjemahan bagian 1 dan bagian 2, mari kita lanjutkan pembahasan mengenai jenis-jenis terjemahan menurut pakar-pakar ternama di bidang translation. Pada bagian 3 ini saya akan secara khusus menjelaskan jenis-jenis terjemahan ala Peter Newmark. Bagi mahasiswa yang mengambil fakultas translation asal Indonesia, siapa sih yang ga kenal Newmark? (kayanya saya aja deh yang ga kenal hik..)
Peter Newmark dalam bukunya yang sangat populer A Text Book on Translation, menjelaskan bahwa pada dasarnya hanya ada dua jenis terjemahan:
1.   Communicative Translation
Terjemahan komunikatif berusaha mengalihkan makna Bsu yang tepat sehingga pembaca terjemahan tersebut tidak kesulitan dalam memahami pesan yang terkandung di dalamnya. Dalam terjemahan komunikatif, jika diperlukan sang penerjemah bisa saja mengalihkan elemen Bsu kedalam kultur Bsa. Jenis terjemahan komunikatif ini cocok digunakan teks ilmiah dan argumentasi, yang menurut Newmark disebut sebagai informative text dan vocative text.
2.   Semantic Translation
Berbeda dengan terjemahan komunikatif, terjemahan semantic mencoba menghasilkan makna kontekstual yang tepat dari Bsu dengan mengambil beberapa nilai-nilai aestetis dan ekspresi dari puisi Bsu, seperti pemilihan kata-kata asing, bahasa figuratif, metapora, bunyi dll. Jenis terjemahan semantis ini sangat baik digunakan pada sastra imajinatif, yang menurut Newmark disebut Expressive texts. 

Berikut konsep yang dijelaskan Newmark (1991:10-11) tentang communicative dan semantic translation:
  • 1.   In communicative translation as in semantic translation, provided that equivalent effect is secured, the literal word-for-word translation is not only the best, this is the only valid method of translation. There is no excuse for unnecessary ‘synonyms’ or elegant variation, let alone paraphrases, in any type of translation.
  • 2.  Both semantic and communicative translation comply with the usually accepted syntactic equivalents or correspondences for the two languages in question.
  • 3.  Communicative and semantic translation may well coincide—in particular, where the text conveys a general rather than a culturally (temporally and spatially) bound message and where the matter is as important as the manner.
  • 4.   There is no one communicative or one semantic method of translating a text—these are in fact widely overlapping bands of methods. A translation can be more, or less, semantic—more or less, communicative—even a particular section or sentence can be treated more communicatively or less semantically.
  • 5.  The vast majority of texts require communicative rather than semantic translation. Most non-literary writing, journalism, informative articles and books, textbooks, reports, scientific and technological writing, non-personal correspondence, propaganda, publicity, public notices, standardized writing, popular fiction—the run-of-the mill texts which have to be translated today but were not translated and in most cases did not exist a hundred years ago—compromise typical material suitable for communicative translation. On the other hand, original expression (where the specific language of the speaker or writer is as important as the content), whether it is philosophical, religious, political, scientific, legal, technical or literary, needs to be translated semantically. A communicative translation may well be a useful introduction, a simplified version, to the semantic translation of such texts.
  • 6.  There is no reason why a basically semantic translation should not also be strongly communicative.
  • 7.   Meaning is complicated, many-leveled, a ‘network of relations’ as devious as the channels of thought in the brain. The more communication, the more generalization; the more simplification, the less meaning.
Begitulah catatan dari Newmark tentang konsep communicative dan semantic translation, duh capek deh nulisnya padahal dah mahir 10 jari. Untuk terjemahan penjelasan Newmark diatas, sobat-sobit tinggal pilih jenis-jenis terjemahan yang mana, mo communicative ato semantic? (he he padahal saya sendiri ga bisa).

Referensi
Newmark, Peter.1981. Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon.


———— .1988. A Textbook of Translation, New York and London: Prentice Hall.


———— .1991. About Translation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

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